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Keynotes, Signals and Soundmarks
|Today (Sunday 18th July) has been designated the first World Listening Day. An initiative of the World Listening Project it aims to 'to celebrate the practice of listening as it relates to the world around us, environmental awareness, and acoustic ecology.' |
|The date was chosen because it is the birthday of R Murray Schafer, the Canadian composer who founded the World Soundscape Project at Simon Fraser University in Vancouver in the late 1960s. His book, The Soundscape: Our Sonic Environment and the Tuning of the World (1977) was a path-breaking attempt to create a vocabulary and analytical framework for thinking about - and listening to - the everyday sounds around us. He defined features of the soundscape such as the keynote (background sound, often emerging from the natural environment), the signal (foregound sound, designed to attract attention), and the soundmark (unique and of special significance to the community).|
I found some fascinating observations here. I was particularly taken by the idea that the tonal centre of soundscapes dominated by the buzz and hum of electrical equipment varies according to the frequency adopted by the country in question (eg 60 Hz in North America, 50 Hz in Europe, ie. B natural or G sharp).
But his argument is so closely tied to a narrative of disappointment and decline (from rural idyll to urban alienation), Schafer comes across as a bit of a prematurely grumpy old man (the book was first published in his 40s) who is not prepared to appreciate the rich complexity of the sounds of the city.
There are some exceptions. For instance, he does seem to have succumbed to the romance of railroads. And he can't quite bring himself to condemn the drone - a keynote of industrial soundscapes and yet valued by ancient musics and religions. But when he asks: 'If we must be distracted ten or twenty times each day, why not by pleasant sounds? Why could not everyone choose his or her own telephone signal?' - you doubt that he welcomed the ringtone revolution when it eventually came.
The project's study of Vancouver was documented on a double LP released in 1973, and subsquently re-issued on CD entitled Soundscape Vancouver with addtional recordings made in the 1990s, allowing listeners to register changes in the city's soundcape over the intervening twenty years.
While a concern to salvage sounds which are disappearing no doubt continues to motivate those engaged in soundscape research, many of them also have an ear for emergent sounds. Not just new sounds or new combinations of sounds that transform the soundscapes we inhabit but sounds which only become clearly audible through the use of new recording techniques. The Interpreting the Soundscape CD curated by Peter Cusack (and included in a special issue of Leonardo Music Journal) - which may serve as a useful introduction to more recent work - includes underwater recordings of the North Atlantic, amplfied insect sounds, and the electromagnetic signals emitted by security gates.
User-Generated ContentSuch field recordings remain the province of specialists. But with the wider availability of portable recording equipment (built in to laptops and smartphones) and means of distribution (via email, phone messaging and online public repositories), people are capturing the sounds they hear around them more than ever before. Including myself, though I am fairly new to the game. Three online repositories I have used include:
While these repositories are not much more than searchable databases, they do offer ways of easily finding sounds related to a common location or theme, through the use of tags and keywords or (more formally) by creating 'sample packs' (Freesound) or user groups (SoundCloud).
But field recordings are often made for (or made use of by) specific projects, which give rise to a more systematic presentation of material. For example, they might be a contribution to a sound map, or document a soundwalk, or form part of a series of sonic postcards.
Sound MapsA sound map may be something you draw yourself, as a way of focusing your attention on what you can hear around you, following these guidelines, for example.
But sound maps may also be collaborative projects in which users are invited to submit recordings tagged with the location in which they were made, and which are then linked to an online map. Typically, these projects are city-focused, such as those for Barcelona (uses Freesound), the Basque Country, London, Madrid, Montreal, Seoul (uses Audioboo) and Vienna (uses Audioboo). Soundcities is wider-ranging, as the name suggests, but many clips are very short.
More ambitious and systematic is the British Library's UK Sound Map(uses Audioboo), currently restricted to the Sheffield area, but with plans to extend across the whole country later this year. Dizzying in its global scope (and randomness) is the Radio Aporee: Maps project, which has made a special appeal for contributions of recordings made today so as to create a mosaic of audio snapshots for World Listening Day.
There are other location-based showcases of field recordings that (so far) have not linked them to online maps, although this would seem to be an obvious development. For example the various 'favourite sounds' projects in London, Chicago, Beijing and elsewhere. Or the fascinating collection in Mexico's Archivo Sonoro (like this recording made in Viveros metro station, Mexico City).
SoundwalksWhat is a soundwalk?
The soundwalk is a practice of focused listening in which one moves through an environment with complete attention to sound. Any environment, at any time of day or night, can provide space for soundwalking. Sometimes the walks are guided by a written or verbal instruction (a "score") and sometimes not. The participants may walk blindfolded, or stand still, or move in response to the soundfield. Sometimes the walker activates the soundscape - "playing along" with the sounds - using the voice, musical instruments or objects encountered along the way. On occasion the walks are recorded and other times they are simply free form ambles through sound filled places. The walks are usually followed by an informal conversation about the experience.This definition is provided by City in a Soundwalk which invites people to follow its suggestions for soundwalks in New York City or offer proposals for more.
There are useful guidelines for undertaking a sound walk on the Urban Sound Ecology website which hosts recordings of such walks in Toronto and plots them on city maps, as part of its 'research initiative dedicated to exploring, examining, and understanding the sonic spaces of Canadian cities.' They are now also working on a Vancouver map.
For more general reflections on the subject, the new Soundwalking Interactions website may be worth keeping an eye on.
Soundwalks are usually local initiatives that are not widely publicized, but many are being organized for World Listening Day (follow this comment thread for more details).
And I'm not sure they need to be always on foot. A simlar spirit informs the annual invitation to complete a circuit of Birmingham (England)'s circular No 11 bus route and document the experience.
Sonic PostcardsSonic Postcards is the name of an education project in the UK pioneered by Sonic Arts Network (now part of Sound and Music). Its aim is 'to encourage pupils to engage with their sound environment and be creative with ICT.' The website showcases the results of each school project (usually with several postcards from different pupils) and includes the results of exchanges with schools in China, Switzerland and Catalonia.
But sonic postcards would be a good name for any short recordings, often produced in a series over a period, but not tied (as most contributions to sound maps or documentations of soundwalks are) to capturing the sounds of public places. They might be more interested in sounds of more personal significance - to the individual or community who heard or made them - and exhibit a kind of intimacy that the other forms of presentation lack. Freed from what can sometimes be a curse of trying to be 'representative' of a place, they are more likely to give us sounds which are interesting for their own sake.
For this reason, I enjoy Headphone Commute's sound postcards, which often have tiny stories attached to them, such as the one featuring a busking violinist at Grand Central Station or the close-up of a dog... drinking.
And while these postcards are issued on a seemingly ad hoc basis, there are other similar series which gain impetus from self-imposed rules, such as Taylor Deupree's 2009 project, One Sound Each Day (with recordings, for example, of him making a peanut butter and jelly sandwich in July or misting the houseplants in December).
Or the One-Minute Vacations created by the quiet american. Try out some 'voodoo ice cream' in Benin and then join the football crowd in the San Siro stadium in Milan (from Year Five).
Happy World Listening Day!
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